Analyze the validity of this statement: The Thirty Years' War was in part a German religious war and in part a German civil war fought over constitutional issues in the Holy Roman Empire. Louis XIV's Dutch Wars. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. This city would serve as his base for the remainder of the war. Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty that ended the religious struggle between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. The Great Miseries of War by Jacques Callot, 1632. The European Wars of Religion: An Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths [Palaver, Wolfgang, Regensburger, Harriet Rudolph & Dietmar] on Amazon.com. HELL . ) – White Mountain, Breitenfeld, Lützen, Rocroi, Nordlingen and others, but this war was also known for the higher civilian casualties than the previous ones. She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. Spain vs. England "Une foi, Un loi, Un roi" One faith, one law, one king. In response, the Lutheran princes who had set up Protestant churches in their own realms met in the town of Schmalkalden in December 1530. PURGATORY. Students progress at their own pace and you see a leaderboard and live results. There are seven questions for easy conversion to an IB grading scale. Notable exceptions were Amsterdam and Middelburg, which remained loyal to the Catholic cause until capture in 1578. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. 1555. wars of the 16th century) 2. The Bourbons, with English support, and led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and Admiral Coligny began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire. Mary of Guise gathered those nobles loyal to her and a small French army. Intro. After obstinate resistance, the town was taken by the besiegers on June 24, 1535, and then Leiden and some of his more prominent followers were executed in the marketplace. The Empire also contained regional powers, such as Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier and Württemberg. France, although always ruled by a Catholic monarch, had played a major part in supporting the Protestants in Germany and the Netherlands against their dynastic rivals, the Habsburgs. Peace of Augsburg The peace of Augsburg was the German Princes having to decide between Lutheranism or Catholicism as their regions religion. The Empire was a fragmented collection of semi-independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as its head; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg. At its height, in the spring and summer of 1525, it involved an estimated 300,000 peasant insurgents. In February 1563, at Orléans, Francis, Duke of Guise was assassinated, and Catherine's fears that the war might drag on led her to mediate a truce and the Edict of Amboise (1563), which again provided for a controlled religious toleration of Protestant worship. Alba was replaced in 1573 by Luis de Requesens and a new policy of moderation was attempted. The following year, the attacks extended to over 20 cities and towns, and would, in turn, incite Catholic urban groups to massacres and riots in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities.[3]. The Battle of Rheindalen near Roermond occurred on 23 April 1568 and was won by the Spanish, but the Battle of Heiligerlee, fought on 23 May 1568, resulted in a victory for the rebel army. The Catholics were victorious and able to maintain their political dominance. The European wars of religion are usually taken to have ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), or arguably, including the Nine Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession in this period, with the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. The Reformation came to Britain and Ireland with King Henry VIII of England's breach with the Catholic Church in 1533. The Huguenots tried to gain French government support for intervention against the Spanish forces arriving in the Netherlands. Failing this, Protestant troops then made an unsuccessful attempt to capture and take control of King Charles IX at Meaux in 1567. Henry of Navarre again sought foreign aid from the German princes and Elizabeth I of England. His policy of religious uniformity in the Netherlands alienated the most wealthy and prosperous part of his dominions. Nowhere was toleration accepted as a positive moral principle, and seldom was it granted except through political necessity. Save. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). The total defeat of the insurgents at Frankenhausen (May 15, 1525), was followed by the execution of Müntzer and thousands of peasant followers. European Wars of Religion - France - The 1560s. The Reformation & European Wars of Religion. Start a live quiz . However this was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. European Wars of Religion - Olivia Fowler Timeline created by oliviafowler23. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. People who have sinned must confess and repent. Following aggressive Calvinist preaching in and around the rich merchant cities of the southern Netherlands, organized anti-catholic religious protests grew in violence and frequency. On one side was a militant Calvinist minority that wanted to continue fighting the Catholic King Philip II, and convert all Dutch citizens to Calvinism. They spread their revolutionary religious and political doctrines into the countryside of Bohemia, Southern Germany, and Switzerland. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. AP European History: Unit 2.2 HistorySage.com Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I. Hapsburg -Valois Wars (c. 1519 -1559) A. Schmalkaldic Wars. On March 1, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked an illegal Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne. S tarting in the 1520s international relations between the rising European states were dominated by conflicts that were primarily or significantly religious in character: wars in central and southern Europe, between Christians and Muslims; and, in central and northwestern Europe, confessional wars, the fruit of the Reformation. Uploaded by. Support from England finally arrived and by the end of March, a significant English army joined the Scottish Protestant forces. French and English intervention failed to secure the defeat of Spain, but the dispersal of the Armada and the diversion of Parma’s resources to aid the Holy League in France enabled the United Provinces of the Netherlands to survive. Spaans (1999) argues that iconoclasm was actually organized by local elites for political reasons [2] In general, local authorities did not step in to rein in the vandalism. The second field action of the war, the stand-off at Turnham Green, saw Charles forced to withdraw to Oxford. However Spain's inability to pay its mercenary armies led to numerous mutinies and in November 1576 troops sacked Antwerp at the cost of some 8,000 lives. Babies who are baptized are free from sin and go straight to heaven. Martin Luther rejected the demands of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany's rulers to suppress the uprisings. During the war, Germany's population was reduced by 30% on average. The first pitched battle of the war, fought at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, and both the Royalists and Parliamentarians claimed it as a victory. 0. 1555. Military intervention by external powers such as Denmark and Sweden on the Protestant side increased the duration of the war and the extent of its devastation. This time, on 24 October 1559, the Scottish nobility formally deposed Mary of Guise from the regency. These wars had been political in nature (and thus not. The actions of the iconoclasts drove the nobility into two camps, with William of Orange and other grandees supporting the iconoclasts, and others, notably Henry of Brederode, opposing them. Frank Hobbs. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer and ended the violence between the Lutherans and the Catholics in Germany. In 1532 the Emperor, pressed by external troubles, stepped back from confrontation, offering the "Peace of Nuremberg", which suspended all action against the Protestant states pending a General Council of the Church. Habsburg rulers confronted an expanded Ottoman Empire while attempting unsuccessfully to restore Catholic unity across Europe. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. The Reformation in Scotland began in conflict. In 1629, Denmark withdrew from the war leaving Wallenstein and his army in charge. a year ago by. The Parlement of Paris instituted criminal charges against the King, who now joined forces with his cousin, Henry of Navarre, to war against the League. Historians have estimated[citation needed] that up to 30% of Ireland's population either died or had gone into exile by the end of the wars. Under pressure from the Duke of Guise, Henri III reluctantly issued an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henri of Navarre's right to the throne. The political interests of the aristocracy and the vacillating policy of balance pursued by Henry II’s widow, Catherine de Médicis, prolonged these conflicts. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel as some bishops converting to Protestantism refused to give up their bishoprics. Some southern cities like Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp joined the Union of Utrecht, and effectively, the 17 provinces were now divided into two warring states. After the defeat, the forces of Zürich regrouped and attempted to occupy the Zugerberg, and some of them camped on the Gubel hill near Menzingen. European Wars of Religion Timeline created by madisonplacencia. The war ended with the Treaty of Münster, a part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. Coligny and his troops retreated to the south-west and regrouped with Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, and in spring of 1570 they pillaged Toulouse, cut a path through the south of France and went up the Rhone valley up to La Charité-sur-Loire. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic. In 1568, William returned to try to drive the highly unpopular Duke of Alba from Brussels. Society struggled under the weight of growing commercial and agricultural capitalism as well as persisting medieval structures. A Scottish rebellion, known as the Bishops War soon followed, leading to the defeat of a weak royalist counter-force in 1640. This treaty was part of the European scale Peace of Westphalia that also ended the Thirty Years' War. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. At the 2nd Battle of Kappel, Zwingli's supporters were defeated, and Zwingli was killed. By dynastic inheritance the whole of the Netherlands, (the modern day Netherlands and Belgium) had come to be ruled by the kings of Spain. Henry I, Duke of Guise, formed the Catholic League to protect the Catholic cause in France. The first major changes to doctrine and practice took place under Vicar-General Thomas Cromwell, and the newly appointed Protestant-leaning Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and portions of neighbouring lands, was the single area most devastated by the Wars of Religion. Most of the important cities in the provinces of Holland and Zeeland immediately declared loyalty to the rebels. In July 1589, in the royal camp at Saint-Cloud, a monk named Jacques Clément gained an audience with the King and drove a long knife into his spleen. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. The European Wars of Religion: An Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths Episodes of widespread famine and disease devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting many of the powers involved. 1555. Edit. This the king refused, and deteriorating relations led to the out break of war in 1642. Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement (Erster Landfriede), that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, who had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. The situation on the ground in 1589 was that King Henry IV of France, as Navarre had become, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. Some areas of Europe had more than 30 percent of their population wiped out. By 1646 Charles had been forced to surrender himself to the Scots and the parliamentary forces were in control of England. Increasingly threatened by the armies of the English Parliament after Charles I's arrest in 1648, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists. The Renaissance had brought rapid economic and population growth which stressed traditional societal structures. The national and religious aspects of the foreign policy of Philip II of Spain were not always in accord. Lots of people are posting their COVID-19 relevant images – and one day someone should make an attempt to inventory them. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16 th century) 2. On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles', the most influential in the capital.[8]. Over the following years, the new Spanish governor Alexander Farnese (Duke of Parma) reconquered the major part of Flanders and Brabant, as well as large parts of the northeastern provinces. European Wars of Religion Timeline created by JackWashburn. The policy of the Bourbon dynasty resumed the tradition of Francis I, and under the later guidance of Cardinal Richelieu the potential authority of the monarchy was realized. Shortly after this episode, local resistance to the reforms emerged in England. European Wars of Religion - Gus Weed Timeline created by cweed23@jcss.us. 68% average accuracy. The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War (German language: Schmalkaldischer Krieg), a brief conflict between 1546 and 1547 between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. "Catholicism and Resistance to the Reformation in the Northern Netherlands". European Wars of Religion Timeline created by madisonplacencia. The term did not necessarily imply a multitude of victims, e.g. The Spanish withdrew from France under the terms of the Peace of Vervins. Knox was declared an outlaw by the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, but the Protestants went at once to Perth, a walled town that could be defended in case of a siege. In 1562, seven years after the Peace of Augsburg had established a truce in Germany on the basis of territorialism, France became the centre of religious wars which endured, with brief intermissions, for 36 years. However tax-raising authority for these wars was getting harder and harder to raise from parliament. The conflict was to the advantage of the Catholics, and the Emperor was able to impose the Augsburg Interim, a compromise allowing slightly modified worship, and supposed to remain in force until the conclusion of a General Council of the Church. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. Even though religion was given as the reaso for war, there were many other reason as well. However, on April 1, 1572, Dutch Calvinist raiders, known as Sea Beggars, forced from sanctuary in England, unexpectedly captured the almost undefended northern Netherlands town of Brielle. However various Protestant elements rejected the Interim, and the Second Schmalkaldic war broke out in 1552. Iconoclasm: The organised destruction of Catholic images swept through Netherlands churches in 1566. The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe in the 16th, 17th and early 18th century. Wolfgang Palaver & Harriet Rudolph & Dietmar Regensburger. Even then, religious strife continued through the Glorious Revolution and even thereafter. The Huguenot army was under the command of Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé and aided by forces from south-eastern France and a contingent of Protestant militias from Germany—including 14,000 mercenary reiters led by the Calvinist Duke of Zweibrücken. The Wars of Religion (1562-1598) The Reformation. As early as 1532, King François I, and (in 1551), King Henri II, had intervened politically and militarily in support of the Protestant German princes against the Habsburgs. Mutual distrust existed between him and his French allies, the family of Guise, because of their ambitions for their niece Mary Stuart. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. War of Roses. But to understand the full story, we'll need to start at the beginning. French Wars of Religion. The southern Netherlands remained Catholic and Spanish, but the Dutch provinces formed an independent Protestant federation in which republican and dynastic influences were nicely balanced. Realising that his predecessor had been right and that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in Catholic Paris, Henry reputedly uttered the famous phrase Paris vaut bien une messe (Paris is well worth a mass). Including: land, money and economics, political power, natural resources, and more included the Hussite rebellion, and missionaries and conquistadors versus Native Americans In 1638 the Scottish National Covenant was signed by aggrieved presbyterian lords and commoners. The Peace of Augsburg A treaty signed by Charles V to attempt at an end of religious conflict around Germany between Catholics and Protestants and settle land areas. This so-called "Spanish Fury" strengthened the resolve of the rebels in the seventeen provinces. European Wars of Religion will be a journey into the excitement, division, chaos, and horror of religious reform and civil violence during the Wars of Religion in early modern Europe. The Netherlands and Switzerland were confirmed in independence. Engraved by Franss Hogenberg, a Dutch engraver and artist of the 16th century. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June, occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. In Northern Germany, Luther adopted the stratagem of gaining the support of the local princes in his struggle to take over and re-establish the church along Lutheran lines. When additional French troops arrived in Leith, Edinburgh's seaport, the Protestants responded by retaking Edinburgh. He was formally received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1593 and was crowned at Chartres in 1594. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching, and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. This played a major rebellion broke out ( the third war ) his lieutenants the Painter of modern and. 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